Спортивная наука и медицина. Дайджест

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Избранные публикации по спортивной медицине, представляющие интерес. Обзор. Спортивная наука и спортивная медицина. Английский язык. Рассылка FIBA. Июнь 2022 года.

Not All About the Effort? A Comparison of Playing Intensities During Winning and Losing Game Quarters in Basketball.

International journal of sports physiology & performance. 16(9):1378-1381, 2021


Fox JL; Green J; Scanlan AT

Abstract PURPOSE:

To compare peak and average intensities encountered during winning and losing game quarters in basketball players.

METHODS: Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (age = 23.1 [3.8]y) were monitored during all games (N = 18) over 1 competitive season. The average intensities attained in each quarter were determined using microsensors and heart-rate monitors to derive relative values (per minute) for the following variables: PlayerLoad, frequency of high-intensity and total accelerations, decelerations, changes of direction, jumps, and total inertial movement analysis events combined, as well as modified summated-heart-rate-zones workload. The peak intensities reached in each quarter were determined using microsensors and reported as PlayerLoad per minute over 15-second, 30-second, 1-minute, 2-minute, 3-minute, 4-minute, and 5-minute sample durations. Linear mixed models and effect sizes were used to compare intensity variables between winning and losing game quarters.

RESULTS: Nonsignificant (P > .05), unclear-small differences were evident between winning and losing game quarters in all variables.

CONCLUSIONS: During winning and losing game quarters, peak and average intensities were similar. Consequently, factors other than the intensity of effort applied during games may underpin team success in individual game quarters and therefore warrant further investigation.

Simplifying External Load Data in NCAA Division-I Men's Basketball Competitions: A Principal Component Analysis.

Frontiers in Sports & Active Living. 4:795897, 2022


Stone JD; Merrigan JJ; Ramadan J; Brown RS; Cheng GT; Hornsby WG; Smith H; Galster SM; Hagen JA.


The primary purpose was to simplify external load data obtained during Division-I (DI) basketball competitions via principal component analysis (PCA). A secondary purpose was to determine if the PCA results were sensitive to load demands of different positional groups (POS). Data comprised 229 observations obtained from 10 men's basketball athletes participating in NCAA DI competitions. Each athlete donned an inertial measurement unit that was affixed to the same location on their shorts prior to competition. The PCA revealed two factors that possessed eigenvalues >1.0 and explained 81.42% of the total variance. The first factor comprised total decelerations (totDEC, 0.94), average speed (avgSPD, 0.90), total accelerations (totACC, 0.85), total mechanical load (totMECH, 0.84), and total jump load (totJUMP, 0.78). Maximum speed (maxSPD, 0.94) was the lone contributor to the second factor. Based on the PCA, external load variables were included in a multinomial logistic regression that predicted POS (Overall model, p < 0.0001; AUCcenters = 0.93, AUCguards = 0.88, AUCforwards = 0.80), but only maxSPD, totDEC, totJUMP, and totMECH were significant contributors to the model's success (p < 0.0001 for each). Even with the high significance, the model still had some issues differentiating between guards and forwards, as in-game demands often overlap between the two positions. Nevertheless, the PCA was effective at simplifying a large external load dataset collected on NCAA DI men's basketball athletes. These data revealed that maxSPD, totDEC, totJUMP, and totMECH were the most sensitive to positional differences during competitions. To best characterize competition demands, such variables may be used to individualize training and recovery regimens most effectively.

Electrical and Structural Adaption of Athlete's Heart and the Impact on Training and Recovery Management in Professional Basketball Players: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Frontiers in Physiology. 13:739753, 2022.

Authors Zimmermann P; Moser O; Edelmann F; Schoffl V; Eckstein ML; Braun M

Abstract Introduction:

We analyzed data of 27 professional basketball players to prove cardiac remodeling referring echocardiographic parameters, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) analyses. The aim of our study was to present different characteristics in the athletes, on the one hand signs of a high vagal tone in the 12-lead ECG as criteria of early repolarization (ER), furthermore echocardiographic remodeling parameters and finally the performance in CPET. Therefore, we divided the cohort into a group with signs of ER pattern in the 12-lead ECG and without these criteria and presented the differences in detail.

Materials and Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study performed in 27 professional basketball players (age: 26.5 +/- 7.5 years, male: 27, height: 197.2 +/- 12 cm, weight: 100 +/- 17 kg, BMI: 25.7 +/- 3.4 kg/m2). All participants underwent a sports medicine checkup, ECG analysis, transthoracic echocardiographic examination, and a CPET on a cycle ergometer between 2015 and 2019 during their pre-season preparation time. All individuals were healthy people without cardiological advance anamnesis. After assessment, two groups were built based on electrocardiographic criteria of ER pattern and a group without these criteria and compared against each other for parameters of echocardiographic assessment, CPET, and 12-lead ECG analysis. Data were analyzed with Minitab statistic program (Minitab Inc., State College, PA, United States) and Graph Pad Prism 8.2.1 (279; Graph Pad Software, San Diego, CA, United States) using ANOVA testing with post-hoc testing and unpaired t-testing (p <= 0.05). Retrospectively additional information was collected referring to the management of training sessions, recovery time, and nutrition by interviewing the athletic training staff in order to understand the principles for individual athlete's training management and physiological and cardiopulmonary interactions.

Results: Comparing professional basketball players with ER pattern to those with no ER pattern, significant differences were found for CPET, echocardiographic, and ECG analysis (p < 0.05). Absolute and relativized peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak; ER 4120 +/- 750 ml/min (39 +/- 5.4 ml/kg/min) vs. non-ER 3556 +/- 393 ml/min (37.2 +/- 5.3 ml/kg/min), p = 0.018) and maximum workload during CPET (ER 310 +/- 51.5 Watt (2.94 +/- 0.35 W/kg) vs. non-ER 271 +/- 32 Watt (2.85 +/- 0.49 W/kg), p = 0.026) was higher in athletes with an ER pattern. Furthermore, ER pattern athletes showed a higher enddiastolic left ventricular diameter (LVedd; ER 58.3 +/- 7.9 mm vs. non-ER 53.6 +/- 3.6 mm, p = 0.048) and a significantly enlarged left atrial (LA) endsystolic diameter (ER 23.33 +/- 2.71 mm vs. non-ER 20.47 +/- 2.29 mm, p = 0.006) as well as a significantly enlarged right atrial (RA) endsystolic diameter (ER 23.42 +/- 2.15 mm vs. non-ER 20.93 +/- 3.28 mm, p = 0.033). Significant differences between the two compared groups could be revealed for left ventricular mass Index (LVMI gr/m2; LVMI ER 113 gr/m2 +/- 17.5 vs. LVMI non-ER 91.3 gr/m2 +/- 15.1, p = 0.002), but no significant differences for the relative wall thickness were found (RWT; RWT ER 0.49 +/- 0.11 vs. RWT non-ER 0.38 +/- 0.06, p = 0.614).

Conclusion: Professional basketball players with criteria of ER pattern showed different results in CPET and cardiac remodeling as athletes with no ER pattern. These findings should encourage the athletic training staff to emphasize the quality of an individual training schedule for each athlete based on the cardiopulmonary pre-season sport medicine checkup. Nevertheless, echocardiographic findings, ER pattern, and performance in CPET have to be interpreted referring the sport-specific and athlete's ethnical background.

Impact of hip abductor and adductor strength on dynamic balance and ankle biomechanics in young elite female basketball players.


Dominguez-Navarro F; Benitez-Martinez JC; Ricart-Luna B; Cotoli-Suarez P; Blasco-Igual JM; Casana-Granell J


This study aimed to evaluate, in an isolated and relative manner, hip abductor (ABD) and adductor (AD) strength and to study the extent to which these factors are related to balance and ankle dorsiflexion mobility in young elite female basketball players. Sixty trainee-level elite female basketball players (13-18 years old), who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study, were divided into three subgroups based on competition age divisions (U14, U16, U18). Isometric hip ABD and AD strength in each leg was evaluated using the ForceFrame Strength Testing System, also calculating the strength ratio and imbalance between legs. Y Balance Test (YBT) and ankle dorsiflexion mobility were also assessed. ANOVA was used for between-group differences analysis. Likewise, the impact of hip strength on balance and ankle mobility was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A linear regression model for dependent variables was created with all variables that exhibited significant correlations. A between-group comparison analysis for the three competition age subgroups (U14, U16, U18) revealed non-significant differences (p > 0.005) for the hip strength variables except for hip ABD strength. The correlation study showed low-moderate effect sizes for hip ABD (in both the contralateral and homolateral limb) and AD strength (only the homolateral limb) with YBT and ankle dorsiflexion. However, when performing a regression model, only right hip ABD significantly predicted right limb YBT scores (beta = 0.592, p = 0.048). The present study indicated that, although both hip ABD and AD strength correlate with balance and ankle mobility with low-moderate effect sizes, only hip ABD strength was found to significantly predict YBT scores. Therefore, the potential role of hip ABD strength in particular, but also hip AD strength, for monitoring and enhancing balance and ankle mobility outcomes, should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing preventive strategies for lower-limb injuries.

Balancing Injury Risk and Power Development by Weighted Jump Squat Through Controlling Eccentric Loading.

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 35(11):2999-3005, 2021 Nov 01


Songsupap T; Newton RU; Lawsirirat C

ABSTRACT: Weighted jump squat (WJS) training is highly effective for increasing neuromuscular power but entails higher injury risk than traditional resistance training because of the impact of landing. Braking mechanisms can be used to control the landing impact; however, the optimal eccentric loading condition that balances injury risks and power output is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess different eccentric braking conditions. Twenty-two male varsity basketball players aged 20.8 +/- 1.1 years and a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of back squat-to-body mass ratio of 2.0 +/- 0.2 participated in the study. The subjects performed 2 sets of WJS of 6 repetitions with additional 30% of 1RM load under 4 randomly assigned conditions: (a) traditional load, no braking (B0), (b) 25% braking load reduction during landing (B25), (c) 50% braking load reduction during landing (B50), and (d) 100% braking load reduction during landing with release at touchdown (B100R). A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences of dependent variables: peak power output, peak force, peak velocity, and impulse. B100R resulted in statistically lower eccentric peak force and impulse for the first 50 milliseconds than the other 3 conditions (p < 0.05), but the largest concentric peak power. Furthermore, B0 resulted in statistically lower concentric peak power and peak velocity than the other 3 conditions (p < 0.05). We suggest that B100R was a more favorable loading condition that balanced injury risk and power production in WJS.

Is the King-Devick Test a Reliable Tool in Wheelchair Athletes?

A Preliminary Prospective Study in Wheelchair Basketball Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 32(2):e134-e138, 2022 Mar 01


Richard J; Lin YS; Wernet L; Kasitinon D; Royston A; Bristow K; Garner D; Argo LR


(1) To determine the reliability of the King-Devick (KD) test among wheelchair basketball athletes across a season and (2) to compare the KD test time changes among those with and without a clinically suspected concussion. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Division 3 college athletics department. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine intercollegiate wheelchair basketball athletes. INTERVENTIONS: Athletes were prospectively monitored for concussions throughout the 2018 to 2019 season. King-Devick testing was completed preseason, midseason, postseason, and after clinically suspected concussions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two-way random effects intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. Friedman's test and pairwise comparison with Bonferroni correction were used to compare for change over time. Mean KD times and changes were compared between athletes with and without suspected concussion. RESULTS: The KD test demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.826). Among participants without a concussion, there was a significant decrease in the mean KD test time from preseason to midseason (-3.3 seconds; P = 0.0167) and preseason to postseason (-3.3 seconds; P = 0.0167). No change was seen from mid-to-post season. Six athletes had 7 suspected concussions. Each demonstrated an increase in the KD test time, with a mean increase from 44.3 +/- 9.5 seconds to 53.7 +/- 12.8 seconds. King-Devick test times returned to or below baseline by postseason. CONCLUSIONS: The KD test shows good reliability among wheelchair basketball athletes without a concussion. A learning effect is demonstrated initially but plateaus on subsequent testing. Unlike athletes without a concussion, players with a clinically suspected concussion showed an increase in the KD test time.

Comparing the effect of a simulated defender and dual-task on lower limb coordination and variability during a side-cut in basketball players with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury.

Journal of Biomechanics. 133:110965, 2022 Mar.


Heidarnia E; Letafatkar A; Khaleghi-Tazji M; Grooms DR


Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when attention is simultaneously on the environment (other players, objects) and maintaining neuromuscular control. Therefore, our purpose was to investigate lower-extremity coordination following ACLR during a run-to-cut with ecological validity to sport competition. Sixteen male basketball players with ACLR (20.8 +/- 3.42 years, time since surgery: 9.5 +/- 2.4 months) were contrasted with 16 healthy male control basketball players (21.3 +/- 3.17 years) during a run-to-cut maneuver under two conditions: 1) standard, run and initiate a ~40degree side-cut and 2) simulated sport, run-to-cut with the presence of a defender and engaged in a dual-task to intercept a ball. Lower limb kinematics were used to calculate continuous relative phase metrics for evaluation of coordination pattern and variability. Independent t-test and effect size were used to evaluate the difference between the two groups and across condition via change score.

The simulated sports cutting maneuver coordination patterns were significantly different between groups for hip-ankle, hip-knee, knee-knee, and knee-ankle coupling (p < .05). Only hip-knee coupling had a significant condition change score (p = .01) with ACLR increasing (51.8 +/- 79.1%) and healthy controls (-16.04 +/- 64.1%) decreasing hip flexion-extension and keen abductionadduction coupling. There was no significant difference in normal cut coordination between groups. The addition of simulated sport visual attention and dual task motor planning during the run-to-cut might elicit different lower limb movement patterns in ACLR athletes compared to the healthy counterparts, potentially contributing to the elevated reinjury risk in those with ACLR history when returning to sport.

Correlations Between Medicine Ball Throw With Wheelchair Mobility and Isokinetic Tests in Basketball Para-Athletes.

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 31(1):125-129, 2022 01 01


Ribeiro Neto F; Loturco I; Henrique Lopes G; Rodrigues Dorneles J; Irineu Gorla J; Gomes Costa RR

Abstract CONTEXT: A detailed analysis of wheelchair basketball skills in beginner wheelchair basketball players (WBP) can provide practitioners with important indications regarding the selection and prospective development of potential sports talents. A comprehensive WBP evaluation can be very time consuming, mainly during the initial phases of the training processes, which could be a barrier in clinical and practical settings.

Moreover, the large number and the turnover of beginner WBP attending rehabilitation centers make the applicability of field and strength tests unfeasible.

OBJECTIVE: To verify the relationships between the medicine ball throw (MBT) and wheelchair basketball mobility performance field tests and the shoulder and trunk peak torque in male and female beginner WBP.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Paralympic Program.

PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven female and male beginner WBP.

MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Participants performed wheelchair basketball field tests (speed, agility, strength, and power tests) and the maximum strength test in the isokinetic dynamometer. The outcomes were correlated with the MBT results.

RESULTS: The MBT presented significantly very high and perfect correlations with all wheelchair basketball field tests assessed (5-m sprint, 20-m sprint, and zig-zag agility test with and without a ball), and peak torque (R2 ranging from .810 to .995; P <= .05) for male and female athletes.

CONCLUSIONS: The MBT, a simple and feasible test, can be used for estimating and determining the wheelchair mobility performance of female and male beginner WBP. It is suggested to measure the distance of a 5-kg medicine ball thrown by athletes during training and testing routines to follow the players' progression.

Weekly Fluctuations in Salivary Hormone Responses and Their Relationships With Load and Well-Being in Semiprofessional, Male Basketball Players During a Congested InSeason Phase.

International journal of sports physiology & performance. 17(2):263-269, 2022 02 01.


Kamarauskas P; Lukonaitiene I; Scanlan AT; Ferioli D; Paulauskas H; Conte D

Abstract PURPOSE:

To assess weekly fluctuations in hormonal responses and their relationships with load and well-being during a congested in-season phase in basketball players. METHODS: Ten semiprofessional, male basketball players were monitored during 4 congested in-season phase weeks consisting of 3 weekly matches.

Salivary hormone variables (testosterone [T], cortisol [C], and T:C ratio) were measured weekly, and external load (PlayerLoad TM and PlayerLoad per minute), internal load session rating of perceived exertion, percentage of maximum heart rate (HR), summated HR zones, and wellbeing were assessed for each training session and match.

RESULTS: Significant (P < .05) moderate to large decreases in T were found in the third and fourth weeks compared with the first week. Nonsignificant moderate to large decreases in C were apparent in the last 2 weeks compared with previous weeks. Summated HR zones and perceived sleep significantly (P < .05) decreased in the fourth week compared with the first week; whereas, percentage of maximum HR significantly (P < .05) decreased in the fourth week compared with the second week. No significant relationships were found between weekly changes in hormonal responses and weekly changes in load and overall wellness.

CONCLUSIONS: A congested schedule during the in-season negatively impacted the hormonal responses of players, suggesting that T and C measurements may be useful to detect fluctuations in hormone balance in such scenarios. The nonsignificant relationships between weekly changes in hormonal responses and changes in load and well-being indicate that other factors might induce hormonal changes across congested periods in basketball players.

Mental Fatigue Over 2 Elite Netball Seasons: A Case for Mental Fatigue to be Included in Athlete Self-Report Measures.

International journal of sports physiology & performance. 17(2):160-169, 2022 02 01.


Russell S; Jenkins DG; Halson SL; Juliff LE; Connick MJ; Kelly VG

Abstract PURPOSE:

Mental fatigue is emerging as an important consideration for elite sporting performance, yet it is rarely monitored. The present study assessed changes in mental fatigue in professional team-sport athletes across 2 seasons and examined the relationship between mental fatigue and other athlete self-report measures of well-being.

METHODS: Elite netballers contracted to all teams competing in Australia's premier professional netball competition during the 2018 and 2019 seasons (N = 154) participated. Using 5-point Likert scales, mental fatigue, fatigue (physical), tiredness, sleep quality, stress, mood, and motivation were assessed daily across 2 seasons composed of 14 round and finals series.

RESULTS: The ratings of mental fatigue significantly changed during both seasons. In 2018, lower ratings of mental fatigue were reported in round 1 versus 3, 4, 6, 8, and 14; round 7 versus 6; and round 6 versus 10 (P < .05). In 2019, lower ratings of mental fatigue were identified for round 1 versus 3, 9, 10 to 14, and semifinal; round 2 versus 10 to 13; and 5 versus 10 to 12 (P < .05). Ordinal regression revealed significant differences between mental fatigue and physical fatigue (P < .001), tiredness (P < .001), stress (P < .001), mood (P < .001), and motivation (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study found mental fatigue to significantly fluctuate across a season in elite netballers. Moreover, perceived mental fatigue differed from physical fatigue, tiredness, stress, mood, and motivation. The data impress the need for mental fatigue to be included as an independent measure of athlete well-being. Monitoring of mental fatigue can allow practitioners to implement strategies to manage its influence on performance.

Sleep affects the motor memory of basketball shooting skills in young amateurs.

Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness. 61(2):188-198, 2021 Feb.


Miyaguchi S; Inukai Y; Hashimoto I; Otsuru N; Onishi H


Sleep has long been shown as important for memory processing and retention, and has recently been implicated in motor memory consolidation. However, it is not known whether sports skills, including basketball shooting skills, are also affected by sleep in young, healthy individuals. Therefore, we investigated whether sleep before and after basketball shooting skill training affected the acquisition and retention of shooting skills. This study included 19 healthy male subjects who participated in a basketball shooting skill training session (100 shots) and a retention test performed 2 days later (30 shots). The learning and retention indices were calculated using performance scores that evaluated each subject's shooting skills. A wearable activity tracker was used to measure sleep parameters for 4 consecutive days, 2 days before and 2 days after training. We discovered the relationship between sleep duration before and after training and retention of shooting skills (sleep duration before training; p = 0.044, r = 0.467, sleep duration after training; p = 0.006, r = 0.606). The retention index for the subgroup with long sleep duration before and after training was significantly higher than that for the subgroup with short sleep duration before and after training, respectively (p = 0.021 for both). There was no significant relationship between learning index and each sleep parameter. Our results demonstrated that sleep duration before and after training was related to retention of shooting skills following basketball shooting skills training.

High-Pressure Game Conditions Affect Quiet Eye Depending on the Player's Expertise: Evidence from the Basketball Three-Point Shot.

Brain Sciences. 12(2), 2022 Feb 18.


Giancamilli F; Galli F; Chirico A; Fegatelli D; Mallia L; Palombi T; Lucidi F


Research on attention in sport using eye-tracking methodology has highlighted that the highest levels of expertise and performance are characterized by a specific gaze behavior consisting of a perception-action variable named quiet eye. The present study aimed to understand the role of quiet eye during the three-point shot, especially in game conditions in which even a single point may determine victory or defeat. Twenty-one basketball players (twelve competitive elites and nine semi-elites) with a high-shooting style performed three-point shots in four game scenarios different from each other for the time available (time pressure) and the relevance of the score (performance pressure). The results showed that competitive elites performed a longer quiet eye online duration and a shorter QE preprogramming duration than semi-elites, especially in the highest-pressure condition. On the one hand, these results suggest that quiet eye during threepoint shots could fulfill an online control function. On the other hand, the findings stressed the importance of implementing experimental conditions that can resemble as closely as possible actual sport situations. Finally, we suggest that sport professionals interested in administering to athletes a quiet eye training protocol in order to improve three-point shot performance consider the shooting style of the players. Does Fair Coach Behavior Predict the Quality of Athlete Leadership Among Belgian Volleyball and Basketball Players: The Vital Role of Team Identification and Task Cohesion. Frontiers in Psychology. 12:645764, 2021. Authors De Backer M; Van Puyenbroeck S; Fransen K; Reynders B; Boen F; Malisse F; Vande Broek G Abstract A vast stream of empirical work has revealed that coach and athlete leadership are important determinants of sport teams' functioning and performance. Although coaches have a direct impact on individual and team outcomes, they should also strive to stimulate athletes to take up leadership roles in a qualitative manner. Yet, the relation between coach leadership behavior and the extent of high-quality athlete leadership within teams remains underexposed. Based on organizational justice theory and the social identity approach, the present research tested whether perceived justice of the coach positively predicts the quality of athlete leadership. Furthermore, we examined the role of group dynamic processes (i.e., team identification and task cohesion) within this relation.

Belgian volleyball (N = 161) and basketball players (N = 78) were asked to rate the justice of their coach, their team identification, the task cohesion, and the athlete leadership quality in the team. Structural equation modeling indicated that coaches' perceived justice positively predicted the quality of athletes' leadership, and that this relation was established through three intermediate steps (i.e., from team identification to task cohesion, to athlete leadership quality). These results suggest that fair coach behavior does not only bridge the gap between leadership and followership, it also has the potential to improve the quality of athletes' leadership within sport teams. More specifically, findings suggest that coaches' perceived justice cultivates a shared social identity characterized by high levels of players' identification with their team, which in turn increased their perceptions of the team's task cohesion. Finally, this increased task cohesion encouraged the athlete leaders to demonstrate high-quality leadership.

Influence of Strength Programs on the Injury Rate and Team Performance of a Professional Basketball Team: A Six-Season Follow-Up Study.

Frontiers in Psychology. 12:796098, 2021.


Caparros T; Pena J; Baiget E; Borras-Boix X; Calleja-Gonzalez J; Rodas G


This study aims to determine possible associations between strength parameters, injury rates, and performance outcomes over six seasons in professional basketball settings. Thirty-six male professional basketball players [mean +/- standard deviation (SD): age, 30.5 +/- 4.7 years; height, 199.5 +/- 9.5 cm; body mass, 97.9 +/- 12.9 kg; BMI 24.6 +/- 2.5 kg/m2] participated in this retrospective observational study, conducted from the 2008-09 to the 2013-14 season. According to their epidemiological records, each player followed an individual plan designed within different strength training programs: Functional (n = 16), Eccentric (n = 8), or Resistance (n = 12). Seven hundred and fourteen valid records were obtained from 170 individual strength tests during 31 sessions. Tests performed were leg press, squat, and jerk. Parameters recorded were force, power, velocity, peak velocity, and time to peak velocity for strength; time loss injury and muscle injury for injury rate; and games won, games lost, and championships for performance outcomes. All the strength variables and injuries are independent of the strength programs (p < 0.01). The correlation analysis showed very significant relationships between muscular injuries and time to peak velocity (r = 0.94; p < 0.01), significant relationships between force and games lost (r = 0.85; p < 0.05), and muscular injuries with games lost (r = -0.81; p < 0.05) per season. Mean values per season described a possible association of force, time to peak velocity, and muscular injuries with performance outcomes (R 2 = 0.96; p < 0.05). In this specific context, strength variables and injury rate data show no association with a single type of strength training program in this cohort of high-performance basketball players.

Drop jumps improve repeated sprint ability performance in professional basketball players.

Biology of Sport. 39(1):59-66, 2022 Jan.


Zagatto AM; Dutra YM; Claus G; Malta ES; de Poli RAB; Brisola GMP; Boullosa D


To verify the acute effect of drop jumps (DJ) on two repeated sprint ability tests (RSA), interspersed with a rest period simulating a basketball game break. Twelve first division basketball players (age: 24.8 +/- 6.9 years; body mass: 97.0 +/- 9.2 kg; height: 2.0 +/- 0.1 m) performed, in a randomized crossover design, two RSA tests separated by 5 min after DJ or control conditions. The DJ condition comprised 5 DJs performed 4 min prior to the first RSA test, whereas 3 DJ were completed 30 s prior to a second RSA test. Surface electromyography was recorded from the lower body for root mean square (RMS) analyses during sprinting. Three countermovement jump (CMJ) tests were performed after warming up and immediately after the second RSA test. DJ improved RSA performance with a faster best time in the first RSA test (p = 0.035), and a shorter total time and mean time (p = 0.030) for the second RSA test. No significant differences were found in RMS between protocols. CMJ decreased in both conditions after the RSA tests (p < 0.05). This study revealed a post-DJ RSA potentiation in professional male basketball players. This simple and effective approach could be implemented at the end of the warm-up and before the end of game breaks to improve player preparedness to compete.

Contemporary Principles for Postoperative Rehabilitation and Return to Sport for Athletes Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation. 4(1):e103-e113, 2022 Jan.


Badawy CR; Jan K; Beck EC; Fleet N; Taylor J; Ford K; Waterman BR


Despite advancements in our understanding of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention and nonsurgical management, ACL reconstruction continues to occur at an alarming rate. Among athletic patients, individuals participating in basketball, soccer, and football have the highest incidence of ACL injury, often requiring surgical intervention. To ensure the optimal treatment strategy for return to sport and prevention of secondary graft re-tear, it is important to tailor to the specific demands of the injured athlete and apply evidence-based best practices and rehabilitation principles. The purpose of this review is to provide readers with a brief background regarding ACL injuries, a focused review of clinical outcome studies after ACL reconstruction, and an updated framework with expert-guided recommendations for postoperative rehabilitation and return to sporting activity. Currently, there is no gold standard for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, highlighting the need for robust studies evaluating the best modalities for athlete rehabilitation, as well as determining the efficacy of new tools for improving therapy including blood flow restriction therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Based on clinical experience, a renewed focus on objective, criteria-based milestones may maximize the ability of return to preinjury levels of athletic function.

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